Gaziantep the 6th biggest city of Turkey and the biggest city of the Southeastern Anatolia is a metropolitan city with the status of municipality, its population and economic potential.
Effect of its geopolitical position on the formation of history of Gaziantep is great. Since it is located in the point of intersection of Mesopotamia and Mediterranean where the first civilizations were born it hosted a number of civilizations. Gaziantep where we see the dominances of civilizations such as Hittite, Mitanni, Assyria, Persian, Selevkoslar, Roma, Byzantine, Seljuk, Mamelukes, Dulkadir and Ottomans have significant cultural works. Gaziantep has a mysterious history where different civilizations, cultures, religions and races came together and synthesized. It was the haunt of civilizations because the historical Silk Road passes here and it has maintained the feature of being a culture and commerce center in all periods of the history.
Variety of historical works in Gaziantep where significant periods were lived such as Paleolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze, Iron Age and Late-Hittite is the indicator of cultural wealth of the city.
After the Ottoman rule, the city was constructed fast and new buildings were constructed and the people lived well till the period of regression of the Ottoman Empire. The city became the administrative district of Halep temporarily in 1818-1819. It affected Antep positively and the city developed socially, economically and commercially. This situation continued till the world war I was damaged by invasion of British in 1919 and then French. The city wrestling with the enemies with its boy, male, young and old for 10 months 9 days in Antep War was awarded with the title of “Ghazi” on 8 February 1921. Gaziantep, getting rid of the enemy invasion on 25th December 1921 has been developing more and more with the proclamation of the Republic. Gaziantep being the most distinguished city of the region thanks to its history, cultural values, cuisinary being mentioned with its name, very delicious Antep meal, five organized industry region, intercity and international linking road hosts thousands of tourists every year with its mysterious history.
Gaziantep Castle is one of the most beautiful examples of castles surviving of Turkey and it is located on a hill attracting almost everybody in about 25 m height, along the South of Alleben Stream in the city center with its history hidden like a secret and its magnificence and majesty. While there is no certain information about when and by whom Gaziantep Castle was built, it is known that its history dates back to 6000 years and it was built on a hill town dating back to Chalcolithic period and there was the castle and a city called as “Theban” around it in A.D II-III century. It was found out that the castle was built as a watch-tower in the Roman Period in A.D II-IV century and it was expanded by means of archeological excavation. It gained its present form in A.D VI. (A.D 527-565) in the period of Justinyanus, Byzantine emperor called as the “Architect of Castles”. Again in this period, the castle was repaired greatly and the south part was reinforced with sub structure (foundation) comprises of arched and vaulted galleries for leveling during repair and towers interconnected with these galleries were built and wall bodies were expanded to the west, South, east and border of the hill. The castle has non-regular circular form. There are 12 towers on the bodies of the castle. Evliya Celebi mentions about 36 bastions of the Castle in the Travel Book. Today, we can see only 12 of them. It is thought that 24 bastions are on exterior walls of the castle and did not survive. There is a ditch around the castle and access to the castle is possible by a bridge. There is also a bastion called as the position of Imam-i Gazali highness by the people on the left before accessing the main castle gate after passing the castle bridge.
In the years following Byzantine period, especially Mamelukes, Dulkadir and Ottoman repaired the castle from time to time and placed repair epitaph for it. The castle was repaired by Egypt Sultan Kayitbay in 1481 for the second time. It is understood by the epitaph on the main gate that main gate and towers on both sides of castle bridge were reconstructed in 1557 by Kanuni Sultan Suleyman in the period of Ottoman Empire. There are two ways opening the top part and interior sides of the castle when you enter through the main gate. Through the way to the left, you can reach the top part of the castle. You can reach the gallery, hall and castle rooms through the way to the interior parts. There is also a water source under the main body. As a result of archeological excavation conducted by Gaziantep archeology museum, a Turkish bath of the Ottoman period was found and in excavation performed in 2000 a mosque was found. Bathroom, steam room and chimneys of the Turkish bath were revealed. It is thought that when the steam is excessive, it is given off via the channels in the corners of the steam room. Turkish bath is not very splendent in terms of architecture but it has superior characteristics in terms of technique. The mosque has the style of the Ottoman architecture and rectangular lay-out. In the south facade of the mosque, semicircle mihrab, two book placement compartments on the right and left of mihrab and a door entrance opening outwards from the south on the left side of mihrab were found. Moreover, there is also a sliding mimbar on the right of mihrab.
Gaziantep Castle rising like a sun for Gaziantep Tourism and brought in Gaziantep Tourism is looking forward the visitors magnificently and became one of the significant attraction centers of Gaziantep Tourism in the city center.
Bey neighborhood where the traditional architecture of Gaziantep was maintained even partly comprised of 50 houses in accordance with the records of cadastral record books. However, it was a developed neighborhood with stone pavement and streets wide enough for a loaded camel to pass. In the travel book of Evliya Celebi, it is mentioned as a settlement that “There are doors like a castle in the beginning of every street of the city. Oil-lamps are on every night. These doors mentioned by old people used to be locked every night. Its cleanliness, order, big mansions show that it is a luxurious quarter. This neighborhood where rich people of the city live is at the walking distance to the castle, accepted as the city center. Neighborhoods in Gaziantep are generally named with the name of mosque. Bey neighborhood was referred with the name of Bey Mosque built in 1587. This mosque damaged greatly during French invasion is not present now.
Bey neighborhood is the place where perfect examples of stonemasonry of Gaziantep are displayed. A document dated 1764 shows the level of stonemasonry in Gaziantep and also it is like a natural museum exhibiting civil architecture examples of Gaziantep and it is a significant source for the history of Turkish architecture.
Historical Gaziantep Houses
Antep Houses are the structures behind the high walls and isolated from outdoor and facing the Life (Yard). Cantilever offset on the second floor of houses to the street is called as pavillion. Such structures covered with metal are known as house with pavillion. Main entrance of the house is provided by entering the yard from the street. There are fireplace (kitchen), cellar, toilet around the yard. Houses are built as single, two and three-floored. Generally, we see two-storey houses.
Yard is very significant since women with the self-enclosed life style are at home all day and life is spent in the yard especially in summers. We see dressed stones on the base of yard. There are flowers around the yard, pool called as Gane in the middle of it. Upper floor of the houses is accessed by stairs outside. There are iwan rooms rowed around the sofa. Top part of this area called as iwan in the region is covered and front side faces the yard. It is a shadowy area in hot summer days. Rooms opening to the sofa are multi-functional. These rooms are built to response the requirements such as eating, sleeping, sitting. Even people can take a shower in the entry part called as threshold. There are also places for mattress and cabinet niche called as kubbiye in the rooms. They have very beautiful woodworking known as nacar. We also see sections to the roof via stairs, reflecting to outside. Spaces being soil roof in the past are now mission tile (it is called as glass in the region). Attic is used as the cellar since the ventilation is good. Generally ceilings pass over the wooden beams and some of them are built by timber-work. Coffering by paint and picture is seen on them. We see the reflections of functions comprising of social life styles on the walls. For instance, there is no window facing the street in the first floor for privacy and it faces the yard. In the upper floors, we see big cage windows facing the road. We see kustagasi providing light and air on all windows. Kustagasi is the place where pigeon and birds shelter. Some windows reflect the religious opinion of the owner. For instance, we see cross windows at the homes of non-Muslim. Windows are the decoration of the building visually in addition to providing air and light requirement. Less wood and more stone pits in the region made use of stone materials mandatory.
Sliver, minaret rock and zinc blende are used. Zinc blende is used for decorating the yard. This stone has the quality of keeping inside cool in summers and warm in winters
Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality created a center with the project of “Culture Road” that inn, Turkish bath, mosque and bazaar and local handcraft of old Antep and where steps of history are heard with a number of artworks such as local handcraft, coppersmith, pearl ornamental inlaying, kutnu, hand-printed head scarves silver emboidery, jewelry, rug selling, potter, gaberdine weaving, shrill pipe maker, saddle maker sinking into oblivon.The castle and its surrounding is the focus point of the project. Culture Road Project beginning from around of castle runs along Koprubasi street, Sirvani Cami street, Pazar street, Lala Pasa Street, Kecehane Street, Uzun Carsi, Hamdi Kutlar Street (covering Boyaci mosque), Gumruk Street, Alauddevle Street, Meyvaci Bazaar, Bakircilar Bazaar, Bugday Arasasi, Historical Almaci Bazaar, Sire Inn and Yemis Inn.
There are 18 inns, 10 mosques, 4 Turkish bath, lodge used by Mevlevi dervishes and a number of immovable cultural assets total 41 works on this axis and also there are a number of registered civil architectural examples.
Cuisine of Gaziantep
Gaziantep has about 6 thousand years of past. It hosted more than 20 civilizations during this period. It is in the most west part of Mezopotamia and in a region having a cultural heritage like Zeugma. Traces left by these civilizations show themselves in many works of past. Gaziantep became a city with unique cuisine, different from general cuisine for eating culture being the most significant factor of life. Geographical position, climate and civilizations living in Gaziantep and around and being on Silk Road are very significant for it. This city dominated by the Ottoman Empire in 13th century and then Turkey added its own culture to the present culture and has cuisine comprising of about 400 meal and desserts.
Shortage during Turkish war of independence and hunger because of it resulted in using everything in cooking and development of food culture. It led to a different cuisine. Gaziantep cuisine puts fruit, vegetable, dairy products, meat and spices in the same pot and makes food with its own sauce. Soup and similar food cooked as a result of getting fruit in kebab, meat and vegetable with yoghurt, herbs with legumes together have unique characteristics.
Eating has a significant role other than normal nutrition in Gaziantep. Desserts and food cooked by the seasons and on special days demonstrate factors of social culture in the best way.
Still new ones are added to the present food culture based on changing conditions. Of course, food of old culture is protected and also new food created by the ones setting their heart on continues the sustainability of this culture with the new ones.
For this reason, the only cuisine called with the name of the city of the world is Gaziantep cuisine.
Belkis /Zeugma Ancient City
Zeugma characterized as the “Castle of Mesopotamia” by Strabon is a significant Hellen and Roman city functioning as a bridge- passage for a number of civilizations and a gate providing passing to Mesopotamia on River Firat. The city built as a military- city (katoikia) model because of its strategic position was built as a result of policies of “Hellenization” aiming to spread Greek culture and economy models to non-Greek local cultures not speaking Greek living in the lands conquered by the Alexander the Great. The most significant motivation of it was to combine small settlements where native population lived in the concept of Greek model city (polis) (synoikismos). In fact, Zeugma was constituted by two cities built as opposing to each other on both sides of River Firat and named as Seleukeia and Apamea in the Hellenistic Period. Roots of name of the city are hidden in this position. Zeugma name has been used since 1st century BCE for this twin city. Its name is “gateway”. These two cities called with single name since then had their own names. One of two cities established by I. Seleukos Nikator, the founder of Kingdom of Seleukos the biggest of Hellenistic kingdoms about 300 BCE where Macedonian immigrants were settled in the West was named as Seleukeia because of the name of king and the city in the East was named as Apama, being the name of wife of Seleukos Nikator, being from Parth. Old Plinius and Byzantion Stephanus, one of the ancient writers said that Alexander passed River Firat in East expedition in this point where Zeugma locates. Zeugma is also the city where Seleukos King III. Antiokhos and Laodikeia, daughter of Persian Mithradates got married.
Rule of Roman Empire was a change affecting culture of the city directly rather than an administrative change.
Roman military administrative base related to Legion and military city (principia) developed in the area in the west of Belkis Hill called as At Square today. Zeugma being the city in the east border of Roman Empire protected its position till the 2nd half of 2. Century AC. It should be said that Zeugma being a military city where significant military and diplomatic meetings with Parth were held in 1st century AC was on ancient caravan and trade route from east to west and North to south, it was a significant commerce center in Hellen and Roman periods.
Duluk Ancient City
Duluk is located in the North of Gaziantep and in the junction point where trade routes along south, North, east and west intersected in Ancient period. It was on the route from Mesopotamia to Cilicia in Assyria period and on the route of Silk Road from Antakya and Cilicia to Zeugma in the Roman Period. In the scientific excavations in Keber Hill at Duluk, flintstone tools of Lower Paleotic period workshops where these tools were produced were found. Since these stone tools have unique character, they are called as “Dulukien” in the literature. An inn used for sheltering (Sarkli Keber Inn) was captured. Based on these ruins in this period, Duluk dates back to 600.000 B.C and it is one of the oldest settlements of the world.
The city known as Doliche in the history was the religion center of Tesup, the head God of Hittite. Doliche and head God Tesup maintaining its importance in the Classical periods maintained its significance in the Roman period and started to be called as Jupiter Dolichenus. This belief spreaded to inside of Europe, England, North Africa by means of the Roman soldiers. Duluk is divided into two as ancient city and holy area. Ancient city is the hill Keber in the North of Duluk village and under the soil. The holy area is in the North of Duluk village and is located on the hill of Duluk Baba covered with cedar and pine trees with 1.020 altitude.
Rum Castle located by the side of Gaziantep, Yavuzeli district, Kasaba village is at 62 km distance to the city center of Gaziantep and 25 km to Yavuzeli and is on steep rocks where Streamlet Merzimen joins with River Firat. Rum castle is easily accessed from Kasaba village and Halfeti via boats. It was referred with a number of names from ancient time until today such as Sitamrat, Kal-a Rhomayta, Hromklay, Ranculat, Kal-at el Rum, Kal-at el Muslimin, Kale-i Zerrin (Gold Castle) and Rum Castle. Rum Castle was built on a high hill surrounded with steep rocks rising from the coasts of Firat and Merzimen. It has architectural feature compatible with the nature as Moltke visiting Rum Castle in 1838 said “it is very difficult to say where the rock ends and where the human work starts.” The castle is in the form of two bodies. The first body was formed by dressing natural rock in the north and west steeply and creating natural wall. The second body was built as wall with hard lime stones on the natural wall. There are a number of embrasure windows in the north and rectangular 7 bastions on north and east walls. Rock extension of the castle in the south of castle was made cliff (ditch) by carving in 20 m in width, 30 m in depth in 12th century. Direct relation with the land and the castle was eliminated for defense. The castle covers 120 m in width and 200 m in length area. Rum Castle was on the shore of River Firat, the border between Halfeti (Sanliurfa) and Gaziantep. Water of streamlet Merzimen used to mix River Firat flowing in deep and steep valley at the bottom of Rum Castle. Its three sides are surrounded with dam lake and it is like a peninsula today. There was a down town in the skirts of the castle. Rum Castle has two main gates as in the east and west. The east entrance was built on River Firat and the west entrance was built on streamlet Merzimen. The bridge we see the abutment ruins today used to connect the castle with the land. You can access the entrance gate of the castle via a pathway here. Defense was made easy by means of 4 tower gates at 20 m distances on the road in the west side. The first gate from the north on the west walls is rectangular. Noldeke mentioned that there was a mausoleum and port where the first gate was located. The second gate is in the form of rectangular semicircle. The third gate was damaged. The forth gate is in the form of square cross vault. The fifth gate is on the east wall facing Firat. This rectangular gate was involved in two niches one of them is round and the other one is sharp-vaulted. Ruins other than body walls and bastions include Author Aziz Nerses Church, Barsavma monastery, water cisterns and water well. The well is about 75 m in depth and 8 m in width to the level of River Firat with steps. It is rumored that this well was a hidden gateway built for supplying water from River Firat. A spiral staircase was built by carving the rock in cylindrical side of the well. There are a number of ruins function of which could not be determined in the castle other than these. Many parts of the structures in the castle were formed by carving and leveling the main rock. Rubble stone was used as the braid material in walls and bastions and regular dimension stones as the coating materials and dimension stone with the brick look was used in arches.
There are three Roman mausoleums in Elif, Hisar and Hasanoglu villages within the borders of Araban district of Gaziantep. These three mausoleums are in the junction of two significant roads from west to the east to Firat and in north-south direction parallel to Firat in the aspect of military and commerce. The fact that these three mausoleums were built as very close to each other is related to road junction. These architectural mausoleums comprises of pedestal section with a mausoleum room and an upper part with open colon, degree or as vaulted and roof cover in the form of pyramidal.
Religious structures serving to non-Muslim people living in Antep in the Ottoman Period took a significant role in determining the character of the city because of their location in the city and collecting effect depending on their functions.
It is in the city center, on Ataturk Avenue, next to Ogretmenevi. The church was built in 1860. Since Catholic Armenian living in Gaziantep had difficulty in constructing the church financially, the church was built with the material support of French King III. Napoleon, French missionary and Catholic community. An extensive aid campaign was held to re-construct the church not becoming useless. The old church was demolished and construction of the present church started in 1898 and lasted for two years and it was opened with a great ceremony in 1900. Saint Fransua Church was used as an example for the lay-out of the church. Lay-out of the church was sent from Vatican, papacy authority. The church was built in a wide garden on black dimension stone base and with white dimension stone. It is of rectangular lay-out and hipped roof. Entrance door is accessed with three steps. Base of church was paved with red and white stones in the form of chessboard. Inside of it is cross vaulted on four legs. Today, main space of the church was divided into two with a reinforced concrete wall. Abscissa part was repaired and transformed into a stage. Balcony was added to the wall where the main entrance door is opposite to the abscissa. The building serves as Kendirli Gazi Culture Center today.
Saint Bedros Church
The church estimated being built in 1723 was revealed during road building of the municipality in 2005 and it has two main entrance doors in the west. According to highly damaged epitaph, the church devoted to Saint Mary was built under the presidency of VIII. Patrik Bedros Krikor Katolikos. The church being 21x13 meters in size is in the form of basilica comprising of naos, nartex, atrium and side corridors divided in 3 naves with 2 colon rows. Pink marble and basalt was used as decoration elements in the church built with dimension stone. The church well protected and with three abscissa serves as Omer Ersoy Culture Center today.
Saint Mary Church (Kurtulus Mosque)
It is located in Tepebasi Street of Gaziantep. Mosque, built as a church in 1892 was used as a church and jail. Kurtulus mosque not losing anything in terms of its old magnificence like a history treasury is one of the biggest mosques of Gaziantep.
Corners of the building and window crosses were made of local black and white stones. Inside of the mosque in the form of cross and being rectangular was divided in three sections with colons perpendicular to the mihrab. Arms of cross are in the form of pediment outside and covered with cross vaults inside. The middle part of main space is round frame and high dome. Lancet windows are seen in the first two rows and round windows on the upper row on the walls made of dimension stone. The building was covered with a hipped roof. Mihrab is protrusive outwards in the form of a rectangular niche. Windows were placed in mihrap wall in three lines. We see a round window in the middle of pediment.
The building reflects Gothic style. Minaret added later is on square pedestal and of round body and single balcony.
Nizip Fevkani Church
Nizip is in the city center in Sihlar Street. The church when and by whom it was built is not known is predicted as built in the Byzantines Period. The church used as a store and inn in the past is vacant without any functions today.
Jews comprising small part of the population in the Ottoman Period, in Gaziantep had a synagogue sufficient for their community in the location called as Ghetto. According the available records, the date of construction of Synagogue is 1886 in Halep yearbooks. It is in the city center in Dugmeci quarter. East and west of the plot of the building is road. We see worship halls in the south and two-storey lodging in the north. Worship halls and building were unusable. Side walls of the synagogue with three naves and gallery, some of center arches are sound but the roof disappeared completely. After restoration works, the building was renewed. Synagogue serves as the Culture Center affiliated to Gaziantep University today.
Historical Gaziantep Mosques are the essential architectural values of the city owing to their documentary quality enabling us to follow the development of the city related to the dates of construction and locations in the city as well as their social contribution depending on their functions and visual contribution to the silhouette of Antep.
In Gaziantep, religious buildings like in other Anatolian cities with the same qualities constitute the center of the quarter being the smallest unit of the settlement. Especially since one of the most significant duties of men of the cloth in the Ottoman Period was to notify orders of the state to the public other than religious tasks, religious buildings were not only places for worship but also meeting places to notify the managerial orders. Religious buildings with these functions were the center of the quarters in all senses and houses and other buildings were developed around them. Significance of religious buildings in this hierarchical order can be understood by the fact that they gave their name to the quarters where they were located. According to 16th century Antep Liva books, we see that names of quarters are the same as the names of religious buildings within the borders of the quarters. There are three main works mentioning about historical Gaziantep mosques having units to respond the social requirements of the people and prayer hall and artistic value and providing information about them. These are 1-Evliya Celebi Travel Book, 2-Ser’I Court registers, 3-Risale-i Fi Tarif Kaza-yı Aynitap.
Zeugma Mosaic Museum
Zeugma Mosaic Museum on the historical Silk Road in Gaziantep is one of the most significant museums of the world in terms of works in it and for its structural complex. Zeugma Mosaic Museum was opened for visit in 2011. Unique mosaics of Zeugma Ancient City, beliefs of people of the period, culture and environment of daily life are presented to the visitors in compliance with the exact architecture.
Works in the museum were placed by their positions in Zeugma Ancient City. Mosaics in the closest position to River Firat are exhibited in entry and mosaics rising to the terraces of the city are exhibited in order.
Zeugma Mosaic Museum comprises of 3 sections. In section 1, mosaics excavated in Zeugma Ancient City and the region are exhibited, in section 2, church mosaics of 5th and 6th century are exhibited. Section 3 comprises of administrative units and conference halls.
2748 square meters mosaics of Roman and Late Ancient Period, 140 square meters of wall picture, 4 Roman fountains, 20 columns, 4 sculptures made of lime stone, bronze Mars sculpture, tomb steller, tombs and architectural pieces are displayed at Zeugma Mosaic Museum.
Gaziantep Archeology Museum
It was established by Sabahat Gogus, one of the first archeologists of the Republic Period in 1944. The museum serving as Nuri Mehmet Pasa Mosque in the beginning was moved to the building of a small city museum in 1969. Finding of archeological settlements in Gaziantep is displayed at the museum. Mosaics exhibited at the additional building since 2005 are now exhibited at Zeugma Mosaic Museum opened in 2011. The museum cannot be visited because of exhibition and arrangement works.
Hasan Suzer Ethnography museum
The building located in Gaziantep, Bey quarter, Hanifoglu Street was built in the beginning of this century. The building passing in other hands for a few times was bought by businessman Hasan Suzer in 1985 while it was greatly devastated and after the restoration was completed, it was donated to Ministry of Culture and Tourism provided that it would be used as “Hasan Suzer Etnography Museum”. Parts of the building were furnished with the commodities of the region by their functions in daily life and liveliness and reality were added to the exhibition with models. Museum is not visited temporarily.
Yesemek Open-Air Museum
Yesemek Open-Air Museum is located on slope at 23 km distance to Islahiye. This slope referred to as Karatepe Ridge is the south extension of Mountain Kurt, also. Yesemek sculpture workshop was opened during the period of I. Suppiluma in Hittite period for the first time (1375-1335 BC) and local people Houri worked here. Assyria and Syrian effects are seen in sculptures in the post-Hittite periods. Arami coming to this region in the following periods reflected its own culture. For this reason, Yesemek sculpture workshop is a significant center reflecting various cultures, various states. However, after Sam’al Kingdom was failed by the Assyria in the end of VIII. Century BC, the sculpture workshop lost its importance and people working here left Yesemek. Yesemek in the place of open-air museum within the structure of the ministry of culture and tourism was found by Felix Von Lusvhan in 1890 performing excavation in Zincirli (Sam’al). Excavation works in Yesemek were conducted by a team under the presidency of Prof. Dr. Bahadir Alkim between the years of 1958-1961 and approximately 200 sculptures were revealed. Then, in archeological excavations performed by Ilhan Temizsoy, about 300 sculptures and sculpture template were found. Gaziantep directorate of museums landscaped and transformed it into an open-air museum.
Gaziantep Ataturk Memory Museum
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Ataturk visiting Gaziantep on 26th January 1933, was registered in “Bey Mahallesi” upon the offer of Hamdi Kutlar, the mayor and Lutfi Bey the governor and resolution of the city council.
At Ataturk Memory Museum opening in 2016 at historical Antep house in Bey Mahallesi where Gazi Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is registered and being the honorary countryman of people of Gaziantep since then, properties used by Gazi Mustafa Kemal Ataturk during his visit to Gaziantep and Gaziantep of that period, Gaziantep defense are exhibited with visual presentation and works. In addition to it, Ataturk Research Library offering the extensive research opportunity enables us to access any kind of information owing to its rich content. There is also Ataturk-theme souvenir part in the museum.
Gaziantep Savaş Müzesi
Gaziantep War Museum serves in 12-room historical building next to Sehitler Parki in Sehrekustu. The museum rising next to Antep War Martyrs’ cemetery in burial area reserved for special people especially in mosques or sufi lodges of Esenbek Mosque where our valuable martyr was buried for the first time tells the struggle of the people of city against the most unjust invasion of the century. A life embracing the blue vault of heaven in greens and a similar of Ramadan Ball lowering from the castle and in the garden welcomes the visitors. Cave under the museum building and cave exhibition area where passages opening to different directions of the city presents the secret of withstanding against a great army of Antep, animation of children collecting bullet, animation of Imalat-I Harbiye, animation of women in war, animation of transfer of martyr and Cello’s Emine. The museum introduces when the French circled Antep in a steel circle, black gunpowder made of sulphur, willow tree+nitre by self-sacrificing masters of the city to the defendants without arms, unmerciful invasion in the 1920’s and resistance of people to this invasion not with gun and ball but with their own invention Sahan Bomb produced with a couple of copper plates and ornamentation. It tells the epic of martyrs and war veterans written with digger, shovel and most importantly with their heart. At the historical building where documents about Gaziantep defense are described in chronological order, pieces of guns of British and French, guns used by the people of city, shotgun, sword, wedge, meat cleaver, digger, shovel and hatchet and many belongings of martyr are exhibited. Boards in the museum tells the story of a father giving his daughter for adoption for a gun, mothers fighting for the meat of died animal when the city was hungry, brave people shouting as “Does a man fight with iron? If you are brave, send your infantry?” to the enemy tanks. It exhibits a number of heroic events, photos of headmen of the quarter, reserve officers of Antep, gradeless hero. We see all details of the invasion, Sehitkamil, Sahinbey, Ozdemirbey, 14 brave people dying at Dokurcum Mill, First Bullet, Magarabasi attack, Samsak Hill attack, documents of Karatarla Meeting on the boards. They show the fight when the motherland and honor is in question, how people die to the world. The museum reveals the secret of Antep being alone resisting to French division and Armenian voluntary regiment with the realities reflected to the exhibition. Museum is not visited temporarily because of the restoration.
Bayazhan City Museum
Bayazhan, getting built by a tobacco merchant Bayaz Ahmet Efendi in 1909 was transformed into a museum by Gaziantep metropolitan municipality to introduce city culture and history of Gaziantep and brought into service in 2009.
At Bayazhan City Museum, the visitors are informed about history of Gaziantep, touristic places, natural beauties, economy, handicraft and cuisine culture and know the city. In addition to it, performance of arts such as kutnu, pearl, copper embroidery local handicraft of Gaziantep is displayed by models in thematic sections. There are also sister cities exhibition halls, exhibition areas, mock-up of significant architectural structures of the city in the museum.
Emine Gogus Kitchen museum
Gogus Mansion in the south of Gaziantep Castle, was built in 1904 in the historical texture and at the same time it is the house where the one of the first ministers of tourism and introduction of Turkey Ali İhsan Gogus was born. The mansion restored by Gaziantep metropolitan municipality was opened in 2008. Emine Gogus Kitchen Museum where tools and equipment used in Gaziantep kitchen to introduce cuisine culture of Gaziantep are displayed and local food beginning to be forgotten is exhibited visually is the first kitchen museum established in Turkey.
The only cuisine referred with the name of the city in the world is Gaziantep cuisine. Cuisine culture from food materials in Antep cuisine, kitchen tools and equipment, local food to drinks, cooking methods to preparation and storing provisions are depicted at the museum.
GorgoMedusa Glass works museum
Medusa Glass Works Museum was made actual to present the collection of 15-year to wider masses, art lovers, scientists. 5 thousands of native and foreign art lovers visited the museum opened on 28th June 2008 in the first month. Medusa Glass works museum was established by renewing an old Antep house around Gaziantep Castle witnessing the history. 70% of works comprises of glass works, 20% of them are bronze and terra-cotta works and 10% of them are gold and bronze coins of the Roman and Islamic period and golden jewelry. Copies of glass works are produced by blowing in glass oven in the garden of museum and presented to the visitors. Medusa Glass works museum is the first special glass works museum of our country and it is worth –seeing.
Ali Ihsan Gogus Museum and Gaziantep Researches Center
The building being a historical Antep house in historical Bey neighbourhood in the old settlement of Gaziantep was restored by Gaziantep metropolitan municipality and organized by journalist, writer Zeynep Gogus, daughter of Ali Ihsan Gogus, one of the first tourism and introduction ministers of Turkey and opened in 2014.
In the museum, bearing the name of historian-journalist Ali Ihsan Gogus deputy of Gaziantep in XII, XIII and XIV periods and being one of the significant persons of Gaziantep, personal belongings of Ali Ihsan Gogus are displayed. In the biography museum, belongings depicting deputy, minister, journalism positions and social life of Ali Ihsan Gogus are displayed. There is also a gallery comprising of books granted by Ali Ihsan Gogus from his own library in the museum. In the terrace floor of the museum, there is a café in a historical Antep house in a pure environment.
Gaziantep Defense and Heroism Panorama Museum
Gallery in Gaziantep Castle was opened by Gaziantep metropolitan municipality in 2009 as “Heroism Panorama Museum” where the struggle in Turkish War of Independence is depicted. Epic victory of people of Gaziantep defending the city heroically in the invasion lasting for 10 months 9 days is depicted in mysterious gallery of magnificent Gaziantep Castle. Organization of Antep defense, front lines and memorial persons are displayed with chronological pictures, relief, sculptures, presentations and mock-up in the gallery and this struggle is described in detail with 79 boards, 41 reliefs, 52 sculptures, 13 busts, 125 portrait reliefs.
Gaziantep Game and Toy Museum
Gaziantep Game and Toy Museum is in a historical Antep house in the historical Bey neighborhood of Gaziantep. The museum, opened in 2013 after the restoration by Gaziantep metropolitan municipality is one of four toy museum in Turkey.
In addition to hand-made toys of 1700-1990 in the museum with wide toy collection, about 600 toys of first production cartoons, movie and fairy tale characters are exhibited in 8 galleries. Moreover, we see two-storey cave with the theme of world children and toy workshops for children and a unit where various activities are organized in the museum.
Sahinbey Islam science history museum
The historical building used as Tuberculosis Hospital and laboratory building of Gaziantep faculty of medicine was functioned as Islam science history museum in 2012. Works of medicine, chemistry, physic astronomy, map and marine are displaye
Copper works exhibition
Copper works exhibition in a historical mansion close to Gaziantep Castle comprises of copper works collected from all regions of Turkey. Copper works include plates, water cans, boilers, cups, trays and satil. Moreover, guns, bayonet and wedges of the Ottoman period are included in this collection.
Gaziantep lodge by Mevlevi Dervishes Foundation Museum
Museum building in Tekke Mosque Social Complex in historical Arasa square was occupied as lodge by Mevlevi Dervishes for a long time. In the museum where Sema show is animated by models, there are handwritten Koran, candlestick and clocks. Moreover, there is a carpet and rug exhibition in other building of the museum.
Gaziantep Turkish bath museum
The building being one of the most beautiful examples of the culture and the Ottoman Turkish Bath architecture served as the Turkish bath part of the Islamic Ottoman social complex getting built by Lala Mustafa Pasa. It was understood that it was built in 1577 in its foundation certificate charter. The building serving as Pasa Turkish bath for long years was restored by Gaziantep metropolitan municipality in 2015 and was transformed into a museum where Gaziantep Turkish bath culture is experienced. In the Turkish bath exhibited authentically coldness, warmness, hotness sections, Turkish bath tools and equipment of Haluk Perk collection, Turkish bath customs are animated with beeswax sculptures and mock-up.
Gaziantep Culture and history Museum
The ground floor of Gaziantep University Merkez library building was modified and the museum was made suitable for exhibition works. Four interconnected big halls and two small exhibition halls and a store/laboratory were installed. While establishment works were in progress, the target mass was determined as university students to make them remind correct information about the city when they return their cities after staying in Gaziantep for 4-5 years.
Gaziantep Culture History Museum was opened on 25th December 2009. The aim of the museum is to reveal the culture of Gaziantep, to remind the past to people living here and to introduce Gaziantep to the visitors. At the museum, collections that concrete cultural assets reflecting the daily life and home arts, life style of cultural phases from 12th century till today, handicraft based on Gaziantep are exhibited.